In the very strange, painted-metal arch CSO tunnel

Wall of Anguish

Main-King Combined Sewer Overflow Tunnel

Chedoke Creek
Strathcona, Kirkendall and Westdale Combined Sewer Overflows

Year of Construction:

Construction Details:
Older overflow sewer under Main Street repurposed to carry less frequent overflows from adjacent large overflow storage tanks built in late 1990s.

The City of Hamilton has pursued a long, slow campaign of heavy infrastructure construction to reduce outflows of combined sewage into Hamilton Harbour and Cootes Paradise. The Main-King CSO tanks were installed in the late-1990s to store overflows from combined sewers in Kirkendall and Westdale and reduce their impacts on Cootes Paradise. Together, the two tank cells have a capacity of 75,000 m3. Like all storage schemes, this one isn't a complete solution; as a result, the system still requires an overflow connection to Chedoke Creek, and it uses a tunnel that already existed as a direct overflow connection from a combined sewer that is now routed into the tanks.


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Michael Cook is available to speak to your organization about infrastructure history, lost creeks, current conditions, and opportunities for change in our management of and communication about urban watersheds, and to work with teams proposing or implementing such change. Get in touch.